1. 10,000 people attended COP-3 in Kyoto, including 1,500 delegates from 160 countries, 3,500 observers and 4,000 media representatives. Sharon Beder, "Climatic Confusion and Corporate Collusion: Hijacking the Greenhouse Debate". http://www.uow.edu.au/arts/sts/sbeder/ecologist.html
2. The Kyoto Conference in December 1997 was the Third Conference of the Parties (COP-3) to the UNFCCC, the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (also known as the `Climate Convention'). The Convention, which aims to stabilise greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level which would prevent dangerous interference with the climate system, was signed by 154 countries at the 1992 Rio Earth Summit. 84 nations signed the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, which is a development of the Convention containing specific targets and timetables. 39 industrialised countries under the Protocol have agreed to reduce emissions of six greenhouse gas: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride. The European Union agreed to an 8 percent overall reduction, the United States to 7 percent, Japan to 6 percent, while Australia was allowed to increase emissions by 8 percent. Still far from entering into force, the Kyoto Protocol requires ratification by 5 of the Parties accounting for at least 55 percent of total CO2 emissions (the United States accounts for 36.1% of carbon dioxide emissions, the European Union for 24.2%, and Russia for 17.4%). So far only 29 countries, all developing, have ratified the Protocol: Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Bolivia, Cyprus, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Georgia, Guatemala, Guinea, Honduras, Jamaica, Kiribati, Lesotho, Maldives, Mexico, Micronesia (Federated States of), Mongolia, Nicaragua, Niue, Palau, Panama, Paraguay, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uzbekistan.
3. The emissions trading scheme has allowed highly polluting industries located in poorer neighbourhoods to continue their pollution by buying up emissions credits elsewhere. The overall level of SO2 emissions might decrease, but the negative impacts on poor communities do not. For more on this, see Michael Belliveau, "Smoke and Mirrors: Will Global Pollution Trading Save the Climate or Promote Injustice and Fraud?", October 1998, published by Transnational Action and Resource Centre (TRAC).
4. Ross Geldspan, "The Climate Crisis and Carbon Trading", Foreign Policy in Focus, July 2000.
5. Centre for Science and Environment, Equity Watch , October 25, 2000. http://www.cseindia.org/html/cmp/climate/ew/index.htm
6. "Serious Global Warming Impacts Expected Even With Strict GHG Controls, Report Says", International Environment Reporter, 20 September 2000.
7. Even if industrialised countries cut their emissions to half of 1990 levels by 2030, climate change will still seriously disrupt natural vegetation, agriculture and sea levels. Average global temperatures would rise 1.7 degrees by 2100, sea levels would rise 33 centimetres, wheat production would drop 20% globally, and 28% of natural vegetation would be threatened. "Serious Global Warming Impacts Expected Even With Strict GHG Controls, Report Says", International Environment Reporter, 20 September 2000.
8. For an overview, see Christian Aid, "Global Warming, Unnatural Disasters and the World's Poor", May 2000.
9. World Wide Fund for Nature, "Climate Change and Extreme Weather Events", October 2000.
10. "Clinton Shifts Climate Emphasis to Forests", Oil Daily, 4 August 2000.
11. Although France and the UK wanted nuclear energy to be included under the CDM, the EU decided in a meeting of the Environmental Council on 22-23 June 2000 to exclude nuclear investments. Nonetheless, they may still attempt to break from the EU decision and pursue their own interests during the negotiations.
12. "It appears from both formal and informal comments of delegation members on both sides that a much more constructive working relationship has evolved between the European Union and the "umbrella group". This was particularly evident in the arenas of compliance (where they even submitted a joint proposal) and in the mechanisms deliberations. While the divide between the EU and umbrella group was moderating, the divide between interests in the developed nations and those of the developing nations and OPEC countries was increasing." "Reflections after Lyon" report by Thomas R. Jacob, DuPont, Manager, International & Industry Affairs. http://www.ieta.org/
13. "EU 'In Disarray' Over Global Climate Talks", ENDS Daily, 18 February 2000. "The US Never Negotiates Near its Bottom Line, While the EU Negotiates Consistently Below its Bottom Line". "The EU in the International Climate Negotiations - Lost and Defeated?", Joy Hyvarinen, Institute for European Environmental Policy, January 2000, p. 3.
14. "It seems unfortunate that the opening EU negotiating move at the international level was not significantly stronger. 'Negotiating down' from your own target (always assuming this is the 'real' target) is clearly not a desirable strategy. In the light of the EU's earlier insistence on a 'concrete ceiling', this looked particularly weak". "The EU in the International Climate Negotiations - Lost and Defeated?", Joy Hyvarinen, Institute for European Environmental Policy, January 2000, p. 2.
15. Chances for a strategic alliance are slim, the IEEP concludes: "The EU's approach to the G-77 appears overly influenced by the US, and has not always seemed very constructive". "The EU in the International Climate Negotiations - Lost and Defeated?" Joy Hyvarinen, Institute for European Environmental Policy, January 2000, p. 4.
16. The EU-wide emissions trading scheme is presented as a "major pillar" of the EU's climate change policies. "Commission Unveils EU Climate Strategy", ENDS Daily, 8 March 2000.
17. Designed by then Single Market Commissioner Mario Monti, the proposal (Energy Tax III b) recycled the previous one but gave member states two options. The first was to impose minimum excise duties on electricity, coal and gas over long transitional periods; the second, to avoid UK strong opposition to taxing domestic fuels, was to hike existing excise duties on road fuels, allowing member states to set a zero rate for electricity, gas and coal.
18. Ironically, a Parliament resolution on climate change states that the Monti Proposal would not even be sufficient to achieve Kyoto's greenhouse gas reductions. Green MEPs blamed New Labour MEPs for having given in to the pressure of the industry lobby. ENDS Daily, 10 February 1999.
19. 'Twin Track' Plan to Reverse Rising GHG, Meet Kyoto Aims Includes Trading Scheme, International Trade Reporter, Volume 23 Number 6, 15 March 2000.
20. "Missing Greenlinks", Greenpeace Switzerland, 1995.
21. "Commission unveils EU climate strategy", ENDS, 8 March 2000. The EU's emissions trading system will only cover the CO2 emissions of six polluting industrial sectors (electricity and heat production; iron and steel; refining; inorganic chemicals; glass, pottery and building materials; paper and printing). For the rest of the economy, including the areas with the highest CO2 emissions such as transport and the domestic sector, the Commission will propose a set of policies and measures. Based on the reports that various working groups involving NGOs and industry are to submit within one year, these policies will include energy taxes and negotiated agreements with industry.
22. German Green MEP Hiltrud Breyer quoted in "Climate Change: Greens Welcome EU Greenhouse Gases Emission Trading System Plan", EIS, European Report, 18 March 2000, n. 2484.
23. "Report Blasts Global Warming Strategy", European Voice, 14-20 September 2000.
25. Quote from "A Neo-Gramscian Approach to Business-Society Relations: Conflict and Accommodation in the Climate Change Negotiations." Paper by David L. Levy presented at the Academy of Management Annual Meeting, "Social Issues in Management Division", Toronto, August 2000.
26. 'Climate Change: A Bull Market in Hot Air", Financial Times, 4 November 1999.
27. "Climate fraud" ("klimasvindel") has become a much-used term in the Danish debate about the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. "Klima-mål under Pres", Information, 31 August 2000, our translation.
28. "Netherlands Allocates Climate Commitments", ENDS Environment Daily, 23 June 1999.
29. "If we are to use the so-called Kyoto mechanisms, then it should only be to put another layer of cream on the environmental pie" (on top of the 21% reduction commitment), Auken explained. "Klima-mål under Pres", Information, 31 August 2000, our translation.
31. "Time to Deliver - Buenos Aires Daily Diary", New Scientist, 12 November 1998.
32. In the case of Kazakhstan. "Time to Deliver - Buenos Aires Daily Diary", New Scientist, 12 November 1998.
33. "Arabian nights - Buenos Aires Daily Diary", New Scientist, 11 November 1998.
34. A study by Christiaan Vrolik of the Royal Institute of International Affairs estimates the result could be a 3% increase in CO2 emissions. "Hot Air - Buenos Aires Daily Diary", New Scientist, 13 November 1998.
35. "Briterne har fået en CO2-fidus", Information, 28 October 1998.
36. "New Emissions-Credits is Expected to Resemble Fast Commodity Exchange", Wall Street Journal, 17 October 2000.
37. 'Climate Change: A Bull Market in Hot Air", Financial Times, 4 November 1999.
38. In a very controversial move, the Dutch government decided to take its US$10 million initial contribution to the fund from the national development aid budget. As the funding will likely be made available in part to Shell and other corporations with strong links to the Netherlands, and as the Dutch government also earns carbon credits from its investment, it cashes in double without having to free up any new resources.
39. "Fuel for Change - World Bank Energy Policy: BIG on Rhetoric, Weak on Action", the Energy Project: http://www.tni.org. See also "Business as Usual at the World Bank", Carbon Watch (Sustainable Energy and Economy Network), 28 June 2000, http://www.seen.org
40. UNCTAD is also looking into the idea of setting-up a network of bilateral agreements between countries that have emissions trading systems. "Climate Change: A Bull Market in Hot Air", Financial Times, 4 November 1999.
41. 'Climate Change: A Bull Market in Hot Air", Financial Times, 4 November 1999.
42. "Emissions Trading Becoming New Area of Business for Some Japanese Companies", International Environment Reporter, Volume 22 Number 4, 17 February 1999.
43. "Climate Change: A Bull Market in Hot Air", Financial Times, 4 November 1999.
44. "A derivative product is a contract, the value of which depends on (i.e. is derived from) the price of some underlying asset (e.g. an interest level or stock-market index). One can buy or sell all the risks of an underlying asset without trading the asset itself. Options are the right to buy or sell a specific item for a pre-set price during a specified amount of time." Kavaljit Singh, "A Citizen's Guide to the Globalisation of Finance", Madhyam Books, 1998, p. 31.
45. "Clinton Shifts Climate Emphasis to Forests", Oil Daily, 4 August 2000.
46. No less than 312 million out of 600 million tonnes of CO2. "Some Technical Progress but No Breakthrough in Lyon", Europe Environment, 19 September 2000.
47. With the exception of the first case, all examples come from "The Dyson Effect: Carbon 'Offset' Forestry and the Privatisation of the Atmosphere", The Cornerhouse, 1999. The first example is from "Carbon Capitalism", Larry Lohman, Corporate Watch, Summer 2000.
48. "Study Criticizes Canadian Proposal for Carbon Sink Credits Toward Kyoto Vows", International Environment Reporter, 27 September 2000.
50. Recommended reading on carbon "offset" forestry: "The Dyson Effect: Carbon "Offset" Forestry and the Privatisation of the Atmosphere", Briefing 15, The Cornerhouse 1999 and WRM Bulletin #37, August 2000, World Rainforest Movement.
51. A recent study by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) confirmed that "the benefits of biological sinks cannot be accurately measured." Researching the case of Russia (15% of global CO2 emissions, 20% of global forest area), the IIASA found an uncertainty range of around 130%! "Study Says Kyoto Protocol is Flawed", Earth Vision Environmental News, 22 September 2000.
52. "A Dirty Solution - Buenos Aires Daily Diary", New Scientist, 6 November 1998.
53. According to Robert B. Horsch, Monsanto's President for Sustainable Development, genetic engineering can "potentially be beneficial in the development of plants that sequester carbon dioxide, microbes that better stabilise soil organic matter, better salt and drought-tolerant plants and new enhanced feed or feed additives that reduce methane emissions from livestock." Source: "Economic Growth Sustained By Sunlight And Information", Robert B. Horsch, PhD, President for Sustainable Development, Presented at the Royal Society of Arts on 6 April 1999.
54. "Forestry - Monsanto Enters $60 Million GE Forestry Deal". Electronic AgBiotech Newsletter 170, 6 April 1999".
55. "Sweet Breezes - Buenos Aires Daily Diary", New Scientist, 2 November 1998.
56. "Economic Growth Sustained By Sunlight And Information", Robert B. Horsch, PhD, President for Sustainable Development, Presented at the Royal Society of Arts on 6 April 1999.
57. One of the many industry side events at COP-5 was a WBCSD/Monsanto workshop on "Potential for Agricultural Soil Sequestration". The ICC and the American Forest and Paper Association also organised a workshop on carbon sequestration.
58. "Sinks that Stink", World Rainforest Movement: http://www.wrm.org.uy/english/bulletin/bull35.htm
60. One of the many examples is the conference on "Exploring Opportunities for Carbon Sequestration" from 26-28 October 1999 in Montana, US. Monsanto sponsored the event, which also involved the 'Montana Carbon Offset Coalition', a coalition which offers "a range of program services to allow clients the opportunity to purchase carbon credit rights from Montana landowners and Montana communities." Http://www.carbonoffset.org/
61. Quote taken from: "German Elections Threaten Meltdown for Nuclear Power in EU", European Voice, 14 January 1999.
62. "UK Hopes to Win Carbon Credits Deal With China", The Guardian, 23 May 2000.
63. "Nuclear Power is Called Key to Meeting Goals on Greenhouse Gases", International Herald Tribune, 15 June 2000. In 1999, 35% of all electricity in the EU was generated by nuclear energy (in the US, the figure was 20%), and the share seems to be growing. "EU Nuclear Power Output Up in 1999", ENDS Daily, 6 March 2000.
64. "UK Hopes to Win Carbon Credits Deal With China", The Guardian, 23 May 2000.
65. A timely example is "Climate Change: How Government And Industry Can Work Together", published by the European Roundtable of Industrialists in October 2000.
66. "Business Responsibility for Sustainable Development", Peter Utting, United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD), June 2000.
68. "The Environmental Divide." Oil and Gas Journal, 12 October 1998.
69. See for instance: "Europe Inc.: Regional and Global Restructuring and the Rise of Corporate Power", Corporate Europe Observatory, published by Pluto Press, January 2000.
70. "Industry Group Shifts Ground on Climate ", ENDS Environment Daily, 3 June 1997.
71. Ms Kuryk is Vice-President for Health, Safety and Environment at BP Amoco Chemicals.
72. Santaholma is chair of the ICC's Energy Commission. Interview 5 May 2000, Budapest.
73. "Corporate environmentalism is the melding of ecological and economic globalisation into a coherent ideology that has paved the way for the transnationals to reconcile, in theory and rhetoric, their ubiquitous hunger for profits and growth with the stark realities of poverty and environmental destruction". Joshua Karliner, The Corporate Planet: Ecology and Politics in the Age of Globalization", Sierra Club Books, San Francisco, 1997.
74. Björn Stigson, WBCSD President, "Kyoto: Where Do We Go From Here?", Earth Times, 17 December 1997.
75. European Commission, "Report on the Conference of the Transatlantic Business Dialogue (TABD), Charlotte, North Carolina, 5-7 November 1998
76. The Protocol is well on the way to becoming a historically unique treaty, as it clearly provides corporations with a key role in its implementation. "Globalization, the Kyoto Protocol, and the Role of the Private Sector", Laura B. Campbell, International Environment Reporter, 27 September 2000.
77. From 1995 until 1998, the OECD member states negotiated on an agreement that would have accelerated and locked-in the deregulation of rules for foreign investment. Campaigns by environmental and other activist groups caused the collapse of the negotiations in late 1998. See for instance "MAIgalomania - The Global Corporate Investment Agenda and the Citizen's Movement Opposing It", chapter 12 in "Europe Inc.: Regional and Global Restructuring and the Rise of Corporate Power", Corporate Europe Observatory, published by Pluto Press, January 2000.
78. Under the header "Making investment decisions and transferring climate-friendly technology". OECD Business Dialogue on Climate Change, 16 May 2000, Paris. "The Business Dialogue is designed to provide an opportunity for business and industry representatives to share views on key issues under discussion in the lead up to COP-6". http://www.iea.org/workshop/forum20.htm/
79. Quote from "A Neo-Gramscian Approach to Business-Society Relations: Conflict and Accommodation in the Climate Change Negotiations." Paper by David L. Levy presented at the Academy of Management Annual Meeting, "Social Issues in Management Division", Toronto, August 2000.
80. Even if the South was to industrialise at top speed, the North's contribution will remain far higher during the remainder of the 21st century. "A Dirty Solution", New Scientist, 6 November 1998.
81.Global Commons Institute: http://www.gci.org Contraction and Convergence is "a principled framework for such an agreement under which all countries are allocated tradable quotas of a global emissions budget, such that the global budget contracts whilst the distribution between countries gradually reaches equal per-capita levels." The Global Commons Institute - like most other NGOs - has hitherto failed to fundamentally question the role of emissions trading in the UN climate talks.
82. Examples of such NGOs include the Pew Center, the World Resources Institute and Environmental Defence (formerly Environmental Defence Fund - EDF) in the US, as well as the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). Since the late 1980s, EDF has actively promoted emissions trading as part of the solution to environmental problems like climate change. In Europe, both WWF and Climate Network Europe (CNE) have cooperated with corporate groupings such as UNICE and CEPS in ways that lend a layer of legitimacy to the corporate climate agenda.
83. If the expected growth in global energy consumption is allowed to continue, also low-impact energy sources like wind power would cause environmental and other damage (such as landscape pollution) if they were to produce such massive volumes of energy.
84. European Roundtable of Industrialists, "Climate Change: How Government and Industry can Work Together ", Brussels, September 2000. The report was prepared by the ERT Environment Working Group, chaired by Renault´s CEO Louis Schweitzer.
85. E-mail from Katie Harris, 19 September 2000.
86. European Roundtable of Industrialists, "Climate Change: How Government and Industry can Work Together ", Brussels, September 2000.
87. ERT, "Climate Change: An ERT Report on Positive Action", Brussels, April 1997.
88. Such as the December 1994 report "The Climate Change Debate - Seven Principles for Practical Policies". Quote from "Industry Group Shifts Ground on Climate", ENDS Environment Daily 3 June 1997.
89. "Industry Group Shifts Ground on Climate", ENDS Environment Daily, 3 June 1997.
90. Phone interview with Caroline Walcot, 24 October 1997.
91. Given the proviso that no new taxes are levied on energy, the chemical industry has made a unilateral commitment to increase energy efficiency by 20 percent between 1990 and 2005 in its Voluntary Energy Efficiency Programme (VEEP) programme.
92. "CEFIC Position Paper on Greenhouse Gases Emissions Trading", 29 August 2000.
93. CEFIC introduced a set of voluntary rules to "discourage the European Commission from inventing a European equivalent to the Toxic Release Inventory, a law passed in the United States in the aftermath of the Bhopal gas disaster that requires corporations to report their chemical releases to the public". Quote taken from: Joshua Karliner, The Corporate Planet: Ecology and Politics in the Age of Globalization, Sierra Club Books, 1997.
94. CEFIC, "Climate Policies and the Chemical Industry", June 1999.
95. UNICE Opinion on the Proposal for a Council Directive on Taxation of Energy Products, 6 May 1997.
96. Letter from UNICE Secretary-General Dirk Hudig to Environment Commissioner Walstrom and COREPER members, "UNICE Input to the Climate Change Agenda for 12 October Council, and UNFCCC- COP 5", 4 October 1999.
97. "UNICE Denounces Cost of Energy to Business", European Report, 4 October 2000.
98. Phone interview with Bent Jensen, 23 October 1997.
99. For background on the rise of the think tank industry in Brussels, see "Europe, Inc.", chapter 2.
100. Mrs. Kuryk is Vice-President of Health, Safety and Environment, BP Amoco Chemicals.
101. For more information on CEPS, see CEO Observer issues 2 and 3. The climate working group organised four one-day meetings on the following topics: "Emissions Trading Meets the Real World" on 4 February; "Encouraging Early Action by Industry" on March 16; "Climate Change: A Challenge for the Electricity Industry" on May 5 and "Industry Measures to Work Towards Meeting the Kyoto Targets" on May 19 2000.
102. "According to the Tenth Edition of the Concise Oxford English Dictionary: green*wash (gr-en-wosh) also green*washing, n. 1. Disinformation disseminated by an organisation so as to present environmentally responsible public image. Origin from green on the pattern of whitewash." quoted in "Exposing Corporate Greenwash - an Activist Tool Kit for Earth Day 2000", Transnational Resource & Action Center, available at www.corpwatch.org Greenpeace, in their 'Greenwash Detection Kit', concludes that "such measures warrant the 'greenwashing' tag unless the parent company publicly acknowledges the fundamental unsustainability of the core business and makes a serious commitment to phasing out of those activities and towards the cleaner business within a near-term timeframe. "Green or Greenwash? A Greenpeace Detection Kit", http://www.greenpeace.org/~comms/97/summit/greenwash.html
103: According to a poll by the UK Offshore Operators Association (UKOOA) the whole oil industry had lost public acceptance, down from 70 per cent in the 1970s to 32 per cent in 1996. ["Can PR Polish Shell's ID?", Marketing, July 9 1998]
104: "Successfully managing a company's image helps create equity among policy makers ". Knowledge Makes a Difference - Corporate Reputations: Considerations for a Global World", p. 9, Burson-Marsteller, 2000.
105: "The Shell Foundation's Sustainable Energy Programme will support projects that either encourage environmentally cleaner energy use or help tackle poverty by providing sustainable energy to poor communities in developing countries." Shell Press Release, "New Shell Foundation launches with $30 million", 05-06-2000.
106: The company helped finance the campaigns of 34 of the 65 senators who were behind the 1997 motion against any international agreement to prevent climate change. It also supported the campaigns of 33 senators who voted against increasing government funding for renewable energy. Among the senators receiving the most generous BP campaign funding were two influential senators from Alaska with particularly horrific environmental voting records. These senators are pushing for legislation to open up Alaska's protected Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, an area of immense ecological value, where BP wants to drill oil. Source: "Does BP mean 'Burning the Planet'?", The Independent on Sunday, 3 September 2000.
107: In September 1999, Anita Roddick of the Body Shop embarrassed Shell with a open letter describing her first-hand account of Shell's operations in Nigeria, exposing "a vast gap between reality and Shell's 'humane' image". ["Is TV Too Much for Shell's 'Ethical' Rebuild?', Marketing, October 7 1999]
108: Greenpeace International, http://greenpeace.org/backop.shtml
109: Phil Watts, Managing Director of the Shell Petroleum Company, "Pursuing Sustainable Development - A Shell Journey," 15 May 2000. See: www.shell.com
110: "Does BP mean 'Burning the Planet'?", The Independent on Sunday, 3 September 2000.
111: "Beyond Petroleum", full-page BP advertisement in the Financial Times, 29 August 2000. ] In 1999, BP Amoco bought Solarex for US$45 million, which made it the biggest solar company in the world.
112: BP Amoco's 'Northstar' oilrig is the first to be built in the Arctic ocean. At BP's April 2000 annual general meeting, the company's plans to exploit the pristine Arctic was denounced in a shareholder resolution that gathered support from 13 per cent of the votes, an exceptionally high percentage. Source: "BP Amoco shaken by AGM resolution results," Greenpeace Business, Issue 55, June/July 2000.
113: "Branded a Liar…", Corporate Watch, Issue 11, summer 2000.
114. The action plan was developed by the "Global Climate Science Communications Team", including API's Joseph Walker, Exxon's Randy Randol and Chevron's Sharon Kneiss. Funding was to have been provided by the American Petroleum Institute, the Business Roundtable, Edison Electric Institute, the National Mining Congress and the Independent Petroleum Association of America. Source: "Industry Plan Calls for Climate-Fight Recruits", Kimberley Music, Oil Daily, 28 April 1998.
115. "Business Organizations Pledge Fight to Block Approval of Kyoto Pact". Statement of William F. O'Keefe, then Chair of the Global Climate Coalition.
116. Global Climate Coalition, "21st Century Climate Action Agenda". Global Climate Coalition web site: www.globalclimate.org
117. API's position on climate change, http://www.api.org
119. "One big problem with Kyoto is that so far, more than 130 developing nations, including China, India, Mexico and South Korea, have declined to accept the treaty and its stringent limits on emissions of greenhouse gases." API position on climate change, http://www.api.org
120. Ozone Action web site:www.ozone.org
121. In July 1999, the Roundtable organised a conference on the "Role of Technology in Responding to Concerns about Global Climate Change". The "Summit to Explore Technology Solutions to Climate Change", organised in August 2000, is another example.
122. Bill S.882 Murkowski-Hagel-Byrd and Bill S.1776 Craig.
123. Letter from Robert N. Burt, BRT Chairman of the Environmental Task Force, to Stuart Eizenstat, 10 November 1998, quoted in Friends of the Earth press release "Leaked Letter Tips US Hand at Climate Summit", 12 November 1998.
125. USCIB's website: http://www.uscib.org
126. Quoted in Bob Burton and Sheldon Rampton, "Thinking Globally, Acting Vocally: the International Conspiracy to Overheat the Earth", Center for Media & Democracy, PR Watch, vol. 4, n. 4, 4th Quarter 1997. Inside", ENDS Environment Daily, 23 October 1997.
127. Quote from "A Neo-Gramscian Approach to Business-Society Relations: Conflict and Accommodation in the Climate Change Negotiations." Paper by David L. Levy presented at the Academy of Management Annual Meeting, "Social Issues in Management Division", Toronto, August 2000.
128: According to the Centre for Responsive Politics' database of industry lobbying: http://www.opensecrets.org/lobbyists/98profiles/5077.htm
129: "Since 1989, we have been privileged to represent a coalition of major U.S. energy companies on the climate-change issue. We were the first law firm in the country to represent energy companies on this matter of crucial importance to them and to the customers they serve." http://www.pattonboggs.com/
130: The Kyoto Protocol opens up for support for countries hit by climate change, but this funding was obviously not intended for oil sheikhs. "Arabian Nights - Buenos Aires Daily Diary", New Scientist, November 11 1998.
132. Pratap Chatterjee and Matthias Finger, "The Earth Brokers: Power, Politics and World Development". London: Routledge, 1994.
133. The working group is led by Juhani Santaholma, of Finnish oil and gas company Fortum, which describes itself as follows: "We are capitalizing on the opportunities created by deregulation in the world's energy markets in order to grow in our home market northern Europe, and in carefully selected markets worldwide." www.fortum.com
134. "A Neo-Gramscian Approach to Business-Society Relations: Conflict and Accommodation in the Climate Change Negotiations." Paper by David L. Levy presented at the Academy of Management Annual Meeting, "Social Issues in Management Division", Toronto, August 2000.
135. Interview with Juhani Santaholma, chairman of the ICC Energy Commission, Budapest, 5 May 2000.
137. BP Amoco, TotalFinaElf and CEFIC are among the European members, and US-based corporations include Boeing, General Electric, General Motors and Dow Chemical.
138. The ICCP thanked Frank Loy, US Under Secretary for Global Affairs, for the, "lengthy discussions on the issues with your team." Kevin Fay, Executive Director of the International Climate Change Partnership, in a letter to Mr. Frank E. Loy, Under Secretary for Global Affairs, 1 September 2000.
139. "The US should continue to oppose efforts to impose any quantitative or additional supplementary requirements at COP-6." Kevin Fay, Executive Director of the International Climate Change Partnership, in a letter to Mr. Frank E. Loy, Under Secretary for Global Affairs, 1 September 2000.
140. "ICCP's principles on CDM state that the process must be "simple," "flexible," "cost effective," and "unconstrained" in order for industry to want to participate. Open-ended public participation will not be conducive to achieving these principles." Kevin Fay, Executive Director of the International Climate Change Partnership, in a letter to Mr. Frank E. Loy, Under Secretary for Global Affairs, 1 September 2000.
144. "Transatlantic Business Dialogue (TABD) - Putting the Business Horse Before the Government Cart", Corporate Europe Observatory Briefing Paper, 25 October 1999. Available on our website: http://www.xs4all.nl/~ceo/tabd/berlinbriefing.html
145. Wittmeyer took over November, after Richard O'Toole of ABB (hydro-dams, nuclear energy).
146. Personal interview with Stephen Johnston, Brussels, 26 January 1999.
147. Commission document "TABD Issue Groups and Commission contact Points", 1998.
148. TABD Mid Year Report, 10 May 1999, Washington D.C., page 6.
149. TABD Charlotte Statement of Conclusions, Charlotte, North Carolina, 7 November 1998, p. 24.
150. Report on the Conference of the Transatlantic Business Dialogue (TABD), Charlotte, North Carolina, 5-7 November 1998". European Commission, DG 1 and DG 3, Brussels, 1 December 1998,page 24.
151. CEO Issue Briefing Papers, TABD Berlin Conference, 29-30 October 1999, page 70.
152. note: http://www.emissions.org/
154. List of non-governmental organisations accredited for the Subsidiary Body's Thirteenth Session, Lyon, 11-15 September 2000. http://www.unfccc.int/sessions/00sept/lopsb13.pdf
155. NucNet News No. 303 - A.
156. Including the American Nuclear Society (ANS), the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), the Canadian Nuclear Association (CAN) and the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF).
157. At least eight European nuclear lobbyists attended the SB13 sessions in Lyon (September 11 to 15 2000), from companies like Siemens, Framatome, NNC, Cogema, Ringhals and Sydkraft. In total over 30 nuclear lobbyists were accredited, but it is unclear how many actually went to Lyon. Subsidiary Body Thirteenth Session - Lyon, 11-15 September 2000. http://www.unfccc.int/sessions/00sept/lopsb13.pdf
158. "Clean Air - Sustainability", European Nuclear Society, 2000.
159. INF wants nuclear energy to "be entitled to credits in the same manner as reduction technologies such as sinks or carbon sequestration." Carbon credits would be awarded for "emissions avoided through plant upgrade or modernization," "action that extends the operating life of a nuclear plant," and "addition of a new nuclear plant unit." The International Nuclear Forum, Policy Statement, June 1999. "The International Nuclear Forum is an alliance of the world's leading nuclear associations", including Canadian Nuclear Association, European Nuclear Society, FORATOM, Japan Atomic Industry Forum, Nuclear Energy Institute and the Uranium Institute. See http://www.climatechange.org/
160. The nuclear lobby groups are made up of mega-corporations from the EU, North America and Japan. NucNet News No. 303 - A.
161. "The Influence of Climate Change Policy on the Future of Nuclear", Jonathan Cobb, speech at the Uranium Institute's Twenty Fifth Annual International Symposium 2000.
162. "Both the international institutions and Parties are very aware that a deal seen as flawed by environmental NGOs could lead to a strong reaction on their part. In this respect nuclear is a very emotional issue in that constituency, and there may be the temptation to delay its inclusion in order to make room for a deal." "Report from SBSTA 13, Lyon, 4-15 September, Andrei Marcu, IETA. http://www.ieta.org/